CITIZENSHIP

Eligibility for adults (age 18 and over):
  • Be a permanent resident
    That means you must not under review for immigration or fraud reasons; or be asked by Canadian officials to leave Canada under a removal order; or have unfulfilled conditions related to your PR status, eg. Medical screening.
  • Have lived in Canada for 3 out of the last 5 years
    You must have been physically present in Canada for at least 1095 days during the 5 years right before the date you sign your application.
  • Have filed taxes
    You must file taxes in Canada for at least 3 years during the 5 years right before the date you apply, if you needed to.
  • Pass a test on your rights, responsibilities and knowledge of Canada
    If you are 18 to 54 years of age on the day you sign your application, you need to take the citizenship test.
  • Prove your language skills (at least CLB 4 or higher)
  • Have intention to live in Canada
  • Prohibitions
    If you committed a crime in or outside Canada, you may not be eligible to become a Canadian for a period. Meanwhile, time spent serving a term of imprisonment, on parole, or on probation doesn’t count as time you have lived in Canada.


Eligibility for Minors (under age 18) in Two different situations:





Citizenship Test Format:
  • In English or French
  • Must complete in 30 minutes
  • Total 20 questions (Pass mark is 15 correct answers)
  • Multiple choice & T/F questions
  • All test information from “Discover Canada”
  • Written and may be oral after written test.


Bill C-6: What has changed?

Changes that took effect immediately upon Royal Assent on June 19, 2017
Previous Citizenship Act Citizenship Act with Bill C-6 Amendments
Citizenship could be revoked from dual citizens convicted of treason, spying and terrorism offences, depending on the sentence received, or who were a part of an armed force of a country or organized group engaged in conflict with Canada. This provision is repealed. Dual citizens living in Canada who are convicted of these crimes will face the Canadian justice system, like other Canadian citizens who break the law.
Applicants were required to intend to continue to live in Canada if granted citizenship. This provision is repealed. Applicants are no longer required to intend to continue to live in Canada once granted citizenship. This removes concerns from new Canadians who may need to live outside of Canada for work or personal reasons.
The Minister had the discretion to waive certain requirements under subsection 5(1) of the Citizenship Act so a minor could obtain citizenship without a Canadian parent. It is now easier for minors to apply for citizenship without a Canadian parent, as the age requirement for citizenship has been removed under subsection 5(1). A personal having custody of the minor or empowered to act on their behalf by court order, written agreement or operation of law, can now apply for citizenship on behalf of the minor, unless that requirement is waived by the Minister.
No provision existed to prevent individuals serving a sentence in the community (a conditional sentence order) from being granted citizenship, taking the Oath of Citizenship or counting this time towards meeting the physical presence requirements for citizenship. Individuals serving a conditional sentence will not be granted citizenship, taking Oath of Citizenship, or be able to count this time towards meeting the physical presence requirements for citizenship.
The Minister has the discretion to grant citizenship to a person to alleviate cases of special and unusual hardship, or to reward services of an exceptional value to Canada. Statelessness has been added as a ground that can be considered for a discretionary grant of citizenship.
The department had reasonable measures to accommodate the needs of citizenship applicants. However, there was no explicit reference to accommodate persons with disabilities in the Citizenship Act. The requirement to take into consideration reasonable measures to accommodate the needs of a citizenship applicant who is a disabled person is now included in the Citizenship Act.
The requirement for applicants to maintain the requirements for citizenship from the time they apply for citizenship until taking the Oath of Citizenship only applied to applications received on or after June 11, 2015. This requirement now applies to all applications, including those received before June 11, 2015.
Changes that took effect on October 11, 2017
Previous Citizenship Act Citizenship Act with Bill C-6 Amendments
Applicants had to be physically present in Canada for 4 out of 6 years, with a minimum of 183 days in each of the four years, before applying for citizenship. Applicants must be physically present in Canada for 3 out of the last 5 years (1095 days), with no minimum number of days per year, before applying for citizenship.
Applicants had to file Canadian income taxes, if required to do so under the Income Tax Act, for 4 out of 6 years, matching the physical presence requirement. Applicants must file Canadian income taxes, if required to do so under the Income Tax Act, for 3 out of 5 years, matching the new physical presence requirement.
Time spent in Canada prior to becoming a permanent resident did not count towards the physical presence requirement for citizenship. Applicants may count each day they were physically present in Canada as a temporary resident or protected person, before becoming a permanent resident, as a half-day toward meeting the physical presence requirement for citizenship, up to a maximum credit of 365 days, within 5 years preceding the date of application.
Applicants between 14 and 64 years had to meet the language and knowledge requirements for citizenship. Applicants between 18 and 54 years must meet the language and knowledge requirements for citizenship.
Changes that took effect on January 11, 2018
Previous Citizenship Act Citizenship Act with Bill C-6 Amendments
The Minister was the decision-maker for most cases of citizenship revocation on the grounds of false representation, fraud, or knowingly concealing material circumstances. The Federal Court was the decision-maker for citizenship revocation cases involving false representation, fraud, or knowingly concealing material circumstances related to security, human or international right violations, and organized criminality. The Federal Court is the decision-maker in all revocation cases, unless the individual requests that the Minister make the decision.
Changes expected to take effect in fall 2018
Previous Citizenship Act Citizenship Act with Bill C-6 Amendments
There was no clear authority for citizenship officer to seize fraudulent or suspected fraudulent documents provided under the Citizenship Act. Clear authority for citizenship officers to seize fraudulent or suspected fraudulent documents is provided under the Citizenship Act.


For further information, please contact our office either by email or by phone.